亞庇佛教的歷史發展

/釋開印   整理

現今的亞庇佛教,是以華語系或北傳的中國佛教系統為主流,南傳與藏傳佛教道場或間有分設,雖為數不多但在亞庇佛教界卻扮演著以英語弘傳佛法的重要角色。

根據九年前本州I.D.S研究所的調查統計,1991年當時的亞庇華人人口有209,175人,佛教徒只有31,788,佔15.2之百分比(%),或許有些人士會對此一數據感到訝異!實事上,正信佛教在本市的落實推動也不過是近十幾年來的事(下文自有交待)。當然,從1991年至今,九年來在各佛教團體秉持著「不忍眾生苦,不忍聖教衰」的弘誓悲願大力推動之下,相信佛教徒人數已有相當激增。    現今亞庇市佛教徒似乎局限於華人群族。十八、十九世紀間,中國僑民南遷來此,雖然當時帶來的是混合了民間信仰的形態佛教(非正信佛教),與今日以華語為主流的佛教沒有直接關係,也非延續於它,但卻間接促成以華族為主流的局面,這是近期的亞庇佛教。在歷史上的「渤泥國」(根據史書記載,中國宋代時期的渤泥範圍,涵蓋今天的菲律賓南端、蘇祿群島、沙巴、砂勞越及加里曼丹一帶區域,或是西方人士所稱的Borneo,而Borneo實源於Brunei汶萊,是渤泥的對音,詳見邱新民『東南亞文化交通史』,頁385)的當時情況就有著顯然差異:十四世紀之前的本地佛教信仰者幾乎是當時皇族市民的土著為主(史書有載,公元1292年,中國元軍南征爪哇失敗時,亦曾有一批中國人留居渤泥,但必竟是外來的),此一時,彼一時,原是土著為主的信仰,現改為華裔信仰,世事無常,自有它的歷史與政治因素。

下面就亞庇佛教歷史分為:公元四、五世紀開始至十三世紀的早期佛教,及二十世紀中、末的近期佛教,兩個時期來敘述。

一、佛教傳入亞庇的史跡

若欲了解亞庇市佛教的起源及其發展,可得從從「渤泥國」的時代說起了。在史料學上,中國史書──『梁書』應該是最早記載渤泥國當時信仰佛教的史書。若論及當時國王崇信佛教乃至深入一般平民百姓的考察,則需綜合『諸蕃誌』卷上的渤泥國條,『宋史』卷489的渤泥傳等文獻資料。宋太宗太平興國二年(997),渤泥國王曾派遣使者施弩、副使蒲亞里,判官哥心等多人到過中國朝貢。當時兩國之間的交流大概情形,記載於中國史書,成為今加考證本市佛教的重要史料之一。

佛教在公元前後傳入東南亞,五世紀初傳入婆羅州。根據『梁書』、『隨書』、『舊唐書』及『新唐書』記載,早在公元四、五世紀間,渤泥是信奉佛教的國家。『南海寄歸傳』和『求法高僧傳』也明文記載,七世紀初葉到公元六百七、八十年前後,當時的印尼諸島和婆羅州一帶多行「說一切有部」(Sarvastivada)及小部分的「正量部」(Sammatiya)佛教。直到十四世紀中回教傳入,至十八世紀的間中或有佛教的宏傳,不過在史記上就不是很明顯。後來,大約十九世紀中,中國南端廣東、福建一帶大量華人移植來此,再次帶來中國佛教和民俗信仰混合。從此以後,本地佛教信仰者皆以華人為主。

亞庇佛教的歷史的發展,可推溯至四、五世紀的渤泥國。渤泥或即現今的汶萊,而當時的版圖,據中國『諸蕃誌』及『宋史』說法是「統十四州」。近人從三都望、三發等地出土的遺物考察,及按照『諸蕃誌』所載的西龍宮、什廟、日麗等多處地點、交通和服色飲食等研究,當時的渤泥國土,至少應當包括今日的沙巴州、汶萊、砂勞越及坤甸,有的說法還包括了菲立賓的南端,而且政治上與中國的關係至為密切(有關渤泥對當時的情形有翔實的記載,以『諸蕃誌』及『宋史』最為詳盡)。   從現今留存的中國『梁書』、『隋書』、『舊唐書』、『新唐書』等史書,婆羅州出土的佛像、香爐等及近人在學術上的考察研究成果看來,從公元四、五世紀至十四世紀之間,這裏確實是曾流行佛教的國家。

中國宋代時期的渤泥國崇佛史跡

       宋代的渤泥,城裏還有居民一萬多人。據說,當時中國商賈每月初一、十五兩天奉賀禮,到幾個月後,才請國王及大人來論定物價;價格一定,就鳴鼓召集遠近的人來船上,任他們貿易。貿易的事情雖然完成,必須等到六月十五當辦完佛節後才可出港,他們以為,就怕會有風濤的災厄。當時所稱的佛,並沒有佛像,只是建蓋一些茅舍,樣子像塔裏放個小龕,罩珠兩粒,叫做聖佛。凡遇佛誕節,國王必親自供獻花果三天。佛誕節後,商賈船舶啟碇離港回國。

中國明朝的社會情況,『宋文憲公全集』(四部備要本)卷26,「芝園後集勃尼國入貢記」有記載,與『諸蕃誌』相同,其記載稱:其地炎熱,多風雨。無城廓,樹林柵為固。王之所居,若樓,覆以貝多葉。王綰髻裸跣,腰纏花布,無車馬,出入徒行。……事佛甚嚴,以五月十三日為節,國人亦於是日作佛事。

公元十四紀後,渤泥國王開始改奉回教,但在十三、四世紀間,中國元世祖忽必烈(Hu-bi-lie)滅宋朝後,建立元朝(1279-1368),版圖跨越亞、歐兩州。1292年元軍南征爪哇(Java),海軍往返經常路過渤泥。後來元軍遠征失敗,而對渤泥的影響卻不少,就是一批不少人馬長居渤泥。這是渤泥蘇丹改信奉回教之前,中國人口、文化與宗教信仰仍續不斷傳入渤泥的概況。公元十五世紀以後,第一任蘇丹阿拉伯爾達達(Alak ber Tata)亦稱摩罕默(Mohamed, 1403)蘇丹改信奉回教。傳其女兒嫁總兵黃升平(或王三品 Ong Sum Ping),而黃升平繼承為汶萊蘇丹世系第二代,回教名字為亞默(Ahmad),此後渤泥才盛行回教至今。

二、20世紀末的亞庇佛教

       二十世紀中、末,沙州歸屬大馬聯邦之後若干年,本市佛教團體開始如雨後春筍般的紛紛成立。公元1972年6月13日,亞庇第一個以佛教之名的「沙巴佛教會」(Persatuan Buddhist Sabah / Sabah Buddhist Association)正式註冊成立,也是本地現存最早成立的佛教團體。事隔一年,即1973年「亞庇佛教居士林」(Kota Kinabalu Buddhist Che Sze Lim)成立,1980年1月13日開幕。1977年興建了本州第一座氣勢雄偉,規模宏大,香火鼎盛的佛教寶剎──普陀寺,是本州馳名海內外的旅客觀光景點之一,相當富有華人宗教、文化、藝術的珍貴價值。

       1982年由張崇堅等成立「慈音精舍佛法研修會」(K.K. Tyer Ying Buddhist Research Society)。1986年1月21日,獲得州政府社團註冊局的批准,並禮請檳城三慧講堂竺摩長老為該會住持。該會於1996年在路陽武吉巴當市郊開始動工籌建慈音寺活動中心,1998年落成及於1999年正式開幕啟用,其每週例常活動計有中、英文佛學班、念佛班、禪修班、讀書會、青年團、週日兒童班等,還有不定期舉辦各類佛法研修課程、梵唄班、敦煌佛像繪畫班、書法班等,它成立至今,可說是亞庇市佛教團體中相當致力於推動及重視佛教教育的團體之一,各類活動皆相當瀕繁。

       本市佛教發展,若論及屬全州性的佛教組織,則直到「馬來西亞佛教青年總會沙巴州聯委會」(Young Buddhist Association Of Malaysia Sabah State Liaison Committee)的成立開始。1984年由當時總會長陳穎春及總秘書梁國興召集第一屆州聯委會會議,直到現在,經歷了16年來,曾經承、主催過無以數計的佛教各類型的活動,在本州是一舉足輕重的全州性佛教組織。
1991年12月,「沙巴內觀智慧禪坐中心」(Kota Kinabalu Vipassana Meditation Society, Sabah)成立。這是本州首間純粹弘揚釋迦原始佛教教義及內觀智慧禪法的佛教團體,也是首創以英文語系接引知識份子、傳佈佛法的佛教團體;其在短短九年內舉辦過無數次的禪修課程活動,成績斐然。

       1992年4月10日「沙巴與納閩聯邦直轄區佛教基金會」(Buddhist Foundation of Sabah and the Federal Teritary of Labuan)成立,這是第一個屬全州性非營利性質的佛教基金會。宗旨在於推廣及實踐正信之佛陀教義,以適當的教育方議來宣揚佛法,提昇佛教徒的精神與道德,在經濟上贊助展覽會、演講會、康樂活動、工作營、研討會或者其他合乎佛法兼有利於身心進展的宗教或教育活動等。另一基金會,緣起於1992年4月18日亞庇一批佛教徒所成立當時只稱之為「行善團」的小組,從事於一些慈善工作。1992年10月13日申請註冊,同年12月21日獲得註冊成為信托局,後改名為「亞庇慈濟基金會」(The Registered Trustees Of The Kota Kinabalu Charitable Foundation)。發起人乃余觀保等皆是本地虔誠的幾位佛教徒,有感於社會上許多貧病交加、殘障等不幸人士,不分種族背景及宗教信仰,皆伸出援手與關懷。這也完全符合佛教教主釋迦牟尼佛教導人們慈悲喜捨,廣結善緣的精神。

海外國際性佛教組織的傳入

在此之前,大凡佛教團體皆以本國或本地某個佛教團體的號召或信念所組成的。第一個海外國際佛教組織傳入於本市,是因緣於1993年12月臺灣的佛教智敏上師蒞臨沙巴弘法後促成的「世界佛教圓覺宗沙巴學會」(Persatuan Penganut Agama Buddha Kesedaran Sempurna Sabah / The Society Of Buddhist Of Perfect Enlightenment Sabah)。這是以藏傳寧瑪巴(俗稱紅教)傳承並糅合中國佛教各宗之長而成的系統。

       一年後,即1994年「國際佛光山沙巴協會亞庇分會」(Persatuan Buddhist BLIA Sabah Dan Wilayah Labuan)成立。1998年開始籌備興建現該會於本州設立的第一座道場──「佛光山沙巴禪淨中心」(Persatuan Renungan Fo Guang Shan Sabah),為本州最大都市佛教道場之一,是一所具現代化的都市道場。該會成立至今六年餘,所舉辦的活動,在文教方面有佛學講座、佛光青年團、兒童班,修持方面有禪坐班、慈悲持素益身心、世界佛學會考等,該會也每年派代表前往參加世界佛光大會,從中學習及吸取經驗。對社會有慈善服務,如援助貧困殘疾病黎、慈悲愛心捐血運動、拜訪老人院、精神病院,參與其他文化社團活動,響應政府的呼吁,擴大教化,接引大眾深獲得各界的認同與支持。

「佛教慈濟功德會」(Buddhist Tzu-Chi Merits Society)是1996年8月由劉濟雨賢伉傳至沙巴亞庇。該會宗旨在於落實佛法生活化,菩薩人間化,發揚佛陀無緣大慈,同體大慈之心念,以慈悲喜捨之心起救苦救難之行,與樂拔苦。其活動範圍包括慈善、醫療、教育、文化(四大單元),以及國際賑災、骨髓捐贈、環保、社區志工(八大腳步)。這是一個舉世聞名的國際性佛教慈善團體,在臺灣或其他國度的會員也不並囿限於華人或佛教徒。

僧眾為主的佛教寺院

       在亞庇諸多佛教組織中,多屬以居士團體。純屬出家僧眾為主道場,則有:一、繼恩法師(Ven. Ji En)的「大悲寺」(Maha Karuna Rama),1988年7 月成立,12月開始正式活動。在這之前,繼恩法師秉持悲願經常於本州各地區弘化,尤其一些偏遠小鎮,是本州第一位對卡達山(Kadazan)族人說法、也是首位常住本市及通曉英語佈教的出家人。。二、繼昌法師(Ven. Ji Chang)1988年底創辦的『淨覺寺』(Jing Jue Monastery),不過法師於1999年已返西馬,交由聖琳法師(Ven. Sheng Lin)接任該寺住持一職,後改名為「觀音亭」(Guan Yin Ting)。

至截稿為止,本市最後成立的佛教組織是「寂靜禪林」(Santavana Forest Hermitage),也是沙州第一個僧團(四位比丘以上)為主的佛教場所。2000年2月11日正式成立護法團(理事)籌委會,並且計劃在亞庇市成立「鹿野苑」(Migadaya),做為佛教教育與資訊計劃中心。這是本市首座專志於推行佛教教育為宗旨的佛教道場。

結語

       綜而觀之,本市的佛教歷史起源於甚早的四、五世紀,而後來的十四世紀至十八世紀間中幾百年的佛教發展過程,根據筆者手上的資料顯示是模糊的。

       我們相信,沙巴佛教團體的成立既遲,在慈善、教育和文化層面也還有諸多尚待努力改進之處。幸則,大馬是重視人民的宗教信仰自由的國家,加上近十年來的經濟起飛與教育落實,帶動了本地佛教的一片欣欣向榮,加之海內外佛教徒的關注與護持,促使本地佛教早日進入了就緒運作的階段。

本市佛教團體,我們除了在硬體設施上會更趨完備,我們也應該開始注入更多人才於教育、慈善、文化方面的工作,尤其教育的根本方針;不斷提昇本市佛教徒的品質,積極培育本地全職或兼職的弘法人員,長期如法栽培具備資格的講師、禪師、律師、論師或佛教學者等。釋迦牟尼佛曾說:「僧在即法在」,相信有此活水源頭,加上僧信和合的團結力量,與佛教團體彼此之間的共同努力,再經若干年,未來必能開展出意想不到的理想成果。

  • 、本文史料,可能對大部分的人會感到生疏,若能引起讀者對本市佛教的歷史發展有所了知,對佛教也有些概念,即已感到欣慰!再者,本文的資料蒐集,亦侷限於筆者個人的所學所聞,若有不周或錯謬之處,乃個人寡聞,尚請不吝指正。

主要參考書

  • 臺灣地球出版社編輯部編『中國文明史』,1997。

  • 邱新民『東南亞文化交通史』,新加坡亞洲研究學會出版(Singapore Society Of Asian Studies),1984。

  • 日本干潟龍祥(Ryusho HIKATA)「南方的佛教」。

  • M.Chin “The Sarawak Chinese Oxford University Press, 1981.

  • Berita Jabatan Pusat Sejarah, Kementerian Kebudayaan Belia Dan Sukan, Negara Brunei Darulsalam, 1990.

THE HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT OF BUDDHISM IN KOTA KINABALU

Compiled by Ven. Shi Kai Yin

Of Santavana Forest Hermitage Sabah

Today, Northern Buddhism or Chinese Buddhism is the most popular amongst the sects of Buddhism in Kota Kinabalu, Southern Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism have a role in propagating Dharma in the English language, even though there are not many followers in number. According to statistics data published by the IDS (Institute of Development Studies) in 1991, out of 209,175 Chinese in Kota Kinabalu, only 15.2 % (31,788) are Buddhist. To understand the origin and development of Buddhism in Kota Kinabalu, we have to begin with the epoch of Poni.

The Evidence of Buddhism Spreading into Kota Kinabalu

In the Chinese chronicles, Liang Shu has the earliest account of Buddhism in the Poni. Chu Fan Chi or Record of Foreign Lands, Sung Shi (Section 489) and others writings also indicate the Poni King and his folks were Buddhists. In 997, the King of Poni sent tribute to China through a group of envoys including Shi Nu, Pu Ya Li and Qadhi Kasim. The contact between these two countries was recorded in the Chinese chronicles and remains an important historical document, testifying the existence of Buddhism in Kota Kinabalu.

Buddhism was propagated in South East Asia during the early part of the 1st century and it was spread to Borneo in the 5th century. Liang Shu, Sui Shu, Qiu Tang Shu and Xin Tang Shu recount that the Kingdom of Poni was a Buddhist country as early as the 4th-5th century. Nan Hai Ji Gui Zhuan and Qui Fa Gao Seng Zhuan also recorded that Sarvastivada and Sammatiya Buddhism showed their popularity in Indonesia and Borneo from the early 7th century until around 670 to 680. There is no clear record of Buddhism from the 14th to the 18th century when this region was under Islamic influence, even though some development might have occurred. It was reinforced only after the middle of 19th century when they was movement of Chinese from Kwangtong and Fujian, who brought along Chinese Buddhism and folk culture. Since then, Buddhists have been mainly Chinese.

The development of Buddhism in Kota Kinabalu can be traced to the epoch of Poni during the 4th-5th century. The Kingdom of Poni or the present Brunei at the height of its power comprised 14 provinces. Contemporary studies and unearthing of artifacts from Santubong and Sambas indicate that the kingdom of Poni should at least have covered present Sabah, Brunei, Sarawak and Pontianak. Some believe that it also covered the present southern Philippines. Chu Fan Chi and Sung Shi have detailed accounts of the history of Poni and China. Based on sources like the Liang Shu, Sui Shu, Qiu Tang Shu, Xin Tang Shu and other texts; the unearthing of Buddha statues and others, with the addition of the contemporary research, there is strong evidence that Buddhism gained its popularity in Poni during the 4th-5th century, lasting until the 14th century.

Evidence of Buddhism Influence during the Epoch of Sung Dynasty

During the epoch of the Sung Dynasty, the city of Poni had a population of more than 10,000. It is believed that the Chinese merchants sent tribute to the King of Poni on the 1st and 15th of the month and after several months, they would invite the King and his ministers to bargain for the traded goods. Once the prices were fixed, gongs would be struck to call the people from far and near to trade on the ships. Normally, the Chinese vessels had to wait for the Buddha day (15th day of the 6th lunar month) before sailing for China. They believed that there would be unfavorable waves and winds if they sailed before it. There was no Buddha statue during that time. However, there were small pagodas equipped with prayer beads and religious materials. During the Buddha day, the King would give his own offerings to Buddha for three days.

The documents on Sung indicate the same evidence as in Chu Fan Chi. It is written that: Poni was a hot place with high volume of rainfall, its city walls were built of timber, and transportation is mainly on foot. The King with his honor did the worshipping of Buddha, and 13th of the 5th lunar month was the festival in which his people also did the worshipping.

The kings of Poni converted to Islam after the 14th century. However, between the 13th to 14th century, Genghiz Khan (Hu bi lie) ended the Sung Dynasty and established the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368), which covered two continents, i.e. Asia and Europe. In 1292, an expedition was sent to subdue Java. The journey of the navy was made by way of Poni. The Yuan military suffered defeat at last, but influenced the Poni by leaving behind a settlement of a group of his people. During this period, the Chinese, together with their culture and religions continuously moved into Poni. The first Sultan, Alak ber Tata or Mohamed converted to Islam in the 15th century. It is believed that his daughter married a local governor, Ong Sum Ping who later became the second Sultan with the Islamic name, Ahmad.

The Buddhism in Kota Kinabalu during the End of 20th Century

At the end of 20th century that was a reformation of the federation for several years, during which many Buddhist organizations formed in Kota Kinabalu. On 13 June 1972, the first Buddhist organization, Sabah Buddhist Association was registered and is still active. One year later, Kota Kinabalu Buddhist Che Sze Lim was set up, and it was inaugurated on 13 January 1980. In 1977, the first magnificent temple, Puh Tho Sze was built. This is a famous tourist center and is full of Chinese religious, cultural and artistic values.

In 1982, Zhang Chong Jian and others set up a new organization, Kota Kinabalu Tzer Ying Buddhism Research Society (KKTYRS). It was officially registered on 21 January 1986 with Ven. Zhu Mo from Penang Triple Wisdom Hall becoming the abbot. Since its formation, KKTYRS has continued to be active in Dharma propagation and education. Merits should be given to the Young Buddhist Association of Malaysia (YBAM), Sabah State Liaison Committee (SSLC) for propagating the Dharma state wide. The president of YBAM, Tan Gin Soon and his secretary called the first meeting of SSLC at 1984 and since then, SSLC has initiated and organized various types and uncounted number of activities.

On December 1992, Kota Kinabalu Vipassana Meditation Society, Sabah (KKVMS) was formed. This is the first Buddhist organization to propagate purely the early teaching of Buddha and Vipassana meditation. English language is used to preach the Dharma to the educated people. Many retreats had been successfully organized since its formation.

On 10 April 1992, The Sabah and Labuan FT Buddhist Foundation was formed This is the first non-profit Buddhist foundation at state level. Its objectives are to propagate and practice the Dharma; using proper and effective teaching methods to propagate Dharma, upgrade the quality of Buddhists by mental and moral development and sponsor activities that will benefit the growth of oneself such as exhibition, Dharma talks, recreation activities, workshops and seminars. Another foundation was set up on 18 April 1992, which focuses mainly on welfare affairs. It was officially registered on 13 October 1992 and became a Trust Fund on 21 December of the same year with the name of The Registered Trustees of The Kota Kinabalu Charitable Foundation. The founders are Yu Guan Bao and other pious Buddhists who care about the poor and unfortunate irrespective of race or religion. This is inline with the teaching of Buddha to practice the Four Immeasurables or Brahma Vihara, i.e. compassion (Metta), sympathy (Karuna), rejoicing (Mudita) and equanimity (Upekkha).

The Incoming of Foreign International Buddhist Organizations

Most of the Buddhist organizations are locally based. On December 1993, Ven. Zhi Min from Taiwan delivered a series of Dharma talks at Sabah and then initiated an organization named The Society of Buddhist of Perfect Enlightenment (Persatuan Penganut Agama Buddha Kesedaran Sempurna Sabah). It is an integration of Tibetan Buddhism and Chinese Buddhism.

One year later, i.e. 1994, The International Fo Kuang Shan Sabah Fellowship Kota Kinabalu Branch was formed. A monastery has been constructed since 1998 and this is the biggest city monastery in Sabah, equipped with modern technology. Since its formation, many activities have been organized, for example, education activities such as Dharma talks, youth group, children’s Dharma class, meditation class, vegetarian campaign, international Buddhist examination, welfare activities such as blood donation campaign, visiting old folk houses and activities participating in the state government and others organization activities. Its effort has been recognized and supported by the public.

Buddhist Tzu Chi Merits Society Sabah branch was formed by Liu Ji Yu and his wife on August 1996. The objectives are to practice Buddhism in daily life and develop the spirit of Boddhisatva, that is to share happiness and reduce the suffering of sentient beings. Its contribution covers four aspects, i.e. charitable, medical, educational and cultural activities, for example, assisting with international natural disasters, bone marrow donation, environmental protection and social volunteers. This is a famous International Buddhist Charity Organization, in Taiwan and other countries, and its numbers are not restricted to Chinese or Buddhists only.

Buddhist Viharas led by Monks

Most of the Buddhist organizations in Kota Kinabalu are led by laymen. The monasteries purely led by monks / nuns are (i) Maha Karuna Rama, the abbess is Ven. Ji En. It was built in July 1988 and started functioning in December. Ven. Ji En has propagated the Dharma throughout the state including the rural areas. She is the first nun based in Sabah who is able to propagate Dharma in English and to give talks to the Kadazan. (ii) Ven. Ji Chang set up Jing Jue Monastery in 1988. However, he went back to West Malaysia in 1999, and Ven. Sheng Lin has taken over the abbot post. The monastery has changed its name to Guan Yin Ting.

The latest Buddhist organization to be formed is Santavana Forest Hermitage and is led by the first Sangha (led by a community of four or more monks) in Sabah. On 11 Feb 2000, a committee was formed. It has planned to set up an education and information center, the Migadaya. This is the first monastery in Kota Kinabalu with the objective to propagate Dharma education.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the history of Buddhism in Kota Kinabalu started in the 4th-5th century, but there is no significant record of it during the period from the 14th to 18th century.

       We believe, in the recent years, the formation of Buddhist organizations in Sabah has been slow and has fallen behind in comparison with other religion especially in charitable, educational and cultural aspects. Fortunately, with the freedom of religious belief, vast economic and educational advancements have given rise to the development of Buddhism in Sabah. In addition, with the concern and support of local and foreign Buddhists, the local Buddhist organizations are prepared to function actively. Our buildings are becoming well equipped with hardware and we have started to emphasize charitable and cultural works. Our strategy in education is to: to upgrade the quality of Buddhists, to train more full time and part time Dharma propagators, to train more qualified speakers for the long term who will become the experts in Tripitaka, i.e. Sutta pitaka, Vinaya pitaka and Abhidhamma pitaka or become Buddhist scholars. The Buddha said that: “Dharma exists only if Sangha exists”. We believe with the existing Sangha and the strong collaboration among the Buddhists that fruitful achievements may be reached after several years.

References:

  1. The History of China Civilization, compiled by Globe Publication, Taiwan, 1997.

  2. Qiu Xin Min, The History of Southeast Asia, Singapore Society of Asian Studies, 1984.

  3. Ryusho Hikata, The Southern Buddhism

  4. M. Chin, The Sarawak Chinese Oxford University Press, 1981.

  5. Berita Jabatan Pusat Sejarah, Kementerian Kebudayaan Belia dan Sukan, Negara Brunei Darulsalam, 1990.